Aita sanctu

Aita Sanctu » orritic birbideratua)

Aita sanctua ( latinez Papa , «aita»; grequeraz παπάς, pappas , [1] «apheça»), pontifex maximus modura ere eçaguna, Romaco aphezpic eta Eliça Catholicoco buru spirituala da, bai eta Egoitza Sanctuaren statuburu . [2] 1929. urthetic aurrera, aita sanctuac Vaticano Hirico Jauregui Apostolicoan du residencia official, Romaco ( Italia ) barrendegui den hiri-statua . [3] Gaur egungo aita sanctua Francisco da, 2013co martrxoaren 13an hautatua , Benedicto XVI.aren atzetic. [4]

Romaco Aphezpicua
Pontifex maximus
Aita Sanctua
CATHOLICOA
Canonization 2014-The Canonization of Saint John XXIII and Saint John Paul II (14036966125).jpg Francisco Aita Sanctua Roman , 2014.

Coat of arms Holy See.svg
Romaco Aphezpicuare armarria

Titularra:
Francisco
2013co marchoac 13 hautatua
Dotorecia Berorren sanctutassuna
Vicilekua
Provincia ecclesiasticoa Romaco Provincia Ecclesiasticoa
Egoitza Jauregui Apostolicoa , Vaticano Hiria
Informationea
Lehena Petri , Catholicismoare arauera
Icendapena Eliça Catholicoa
Eçarpena I. mendea
Elizbarrutia Roma
Cathedrala San Joan Laterangoaren basilica
Governua Egoitza Sanctua
Aphezpicu emeritua Benedicto
Web-orria
Egoitza Sanctua

Aphezpicu-egoitzaren escumenari Egoitza Sanctua deritzo, Vaticano Hiriaren eguitasmo burujabea dena eta nationearteco çucembidean parte harcen duena, 1929. urthetic aurrera, urthe horretan Italiac eta Vaticano Hiriac signaturic Laterango Itunen ondorioz, independencia diplomatico eta spiritual temporal bat emanez hiri-statuari .

Catholicoen arauera, cereguin hori San Petri apostoluaren ondorengo içaitetic dathorquio, Christoren ordezco baita lurrean ( Vicarius Christi ). Aulki Sanctuaren burua da ( Sancta Sedes ). Jathorriz "Pedroren ordezco" titulua ceducaten, baina 495. urtheco synodoaren ondoren Guelasio I.a aita sanctuac "Christoren ordezco" titulua sorthu çuen, Pedroren ondorengoac Eliçaco patriarquen gainean çuen statusa aguertarazteco. Aita sanctu titulua Marcelinoc erabili çuen lehen aldiz 304. urthean . XI. mendetic aurrera, titulua Romaco aphezpicuarençaco bihurtu cen soilic ( Gregorio VII.aren ondoren). Aita sanctuec garranci osso handia dute, guehien iraun duen eguitasmoetaricoa delaric Egoitza Sanctua . [5] Garai çaharretan, aita sanctuec Christautassuna hedatzen lagundu çuten, bai eta doctrina-araço ezberdinen compombideac bilhatu cituzte ere. [6] Erdi Aroan , funsezco functione secularra bethe çuten Europaco Ekialdean , regue catholicoen arteco jocoçain modura, ascotan. [7] [8] [9] Gaur egun, fede christauaren çabalcearen defensaz gain (bai eta doctrina christauarena ere), aita sanctuac ecumenismoan , religioneen arteco elkarrhizquetetan, caritatean eta guiça escubideen defensan lan eguiten dute. [10] [11]

Historiaco cembait tartetan aita sanctutzac garrancia eduquiaz at bothere temporala eduqu du, garai hartaco governante ezberdinequin berdinen arteco relationea lorthu celaric, bothere secularrari dagoquionez. Halere, azquen mendeetan, bothere temporal hau murrizpen joan da gaur egun ia modu exclusivoan affera religiosoetara mugatzen delaric aita sanctutza . [6] Modu contrajarrian, aita sanctuec bothere eta autoritate spirituala gueroz eta handiagoa içan da, dembora cehar, 1870. urthean Aita Sanctuaren hutsecintassunaren dogmaren aldarricatzearequi gorenera iritsiz, moralaren edo fedearen inguruco definitione formal bat escainceco aita sanctuac ex cathedra hitzeguite dueneco casu punctual horietaraco (litteralqui, " Petriren aulkitic "). [6] Gaur eguneraino, Aita Sanctua mundu ossoco personaric botheretsuenetaricoa consideratzen da, 1,300 millioi catholico baino guehiagoren influente diplomatico, cultural cein spiritual içaitearen ondorioz. [12] [13] Era berean, mundu ossoco eta Governu baten quide ez den hezcunça-hornitzaile nagussia da, bai eta ossassun-hornitzaile handi [14] cein caritate-sare içugarriduna.

Aita sanctua cardinalec Cappera Sixtinoan ossatutac conclabean erabaquitzen da. Behin hautaqueta eguin eta guero, gendaurrean iragarcen da, Habemus Papam formula erabiliz.

Historia Aldatu

Titulua eta etymologia Aldatu

Angleseco pope terminoa greciarreco πάππας ( páppas )-ethic dathor, "aita" erranahaia duena. Christautassunaren lehen mendeetan, titulu hau aphezpicu eta bercelaco elizjende çahar guztiei jarcen citzaien, berheciqui ekialdean, [15] XI. mendean Romaco phezpicuaren titulu berheizgarria bilhacatu cen arte. [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] Gaur egun duen connotationearequin Aita Sanctu titulu berheizgarri modura eduqui çuen lehen guiçona garai hartaraco jada hilic cegoen Alexandriaco Heraclas dugu (232–248). [21] Angleseco pope terminoaren lehen erabilerara ailegatzeco, X. mendearen erdi-alderaino bidaiatu beharco dugu, non Vitalianori eguine çaion referencia, VII. mendeco Aita Sanctu romatarrari , Beda-ren Historia ecclesiastica guentis Anglorum obraren Angles Çaharrean dagoen itzulpen batean. [22]

Eliçaren barruco cocapena Aldatu

Eliça Catholicoac erraitn duen leguez, ekinça pastorala (Eliçaren arçainça , nolabait erraitearren) apostoluec burutzen çuten, Petri buru çuten talde edo "escola" bat ossatzen çutenac. Gaur egun, talde hori apostolu hauen ondorengoec ossatzen dute, aphezpicuec , Romaco Aphezpicua (Aita Sanctua) buru beçala. [23] Hemendic, hain çucen ere, erathorcen da aita sanctuaren berce icenetaco bat: goreneco aphezpicu edo, latinez , pontifex maximus .

Eliça Catholicoaren iracascuncequin jarraituz, Eliça Catholicoaren arauera Jesus içan cen, personalqui, Petri Eliçaren buru icendatu çuena. Era berean, Eliça Catholicoaren dogma den Lumen guentium ac argu uzten du apostoluen eta aphezpicuen arteco ezberdintassuna, azquenecoac lehenengoen ondorengo modura aurkeztuz, Aita Sanctua Petriren ondorego modura, Petri apostoluen buru cen moduan Aita Sanctua aphezpicuen buru içaiteco. [24] Historialari batzuec, onçat harcen den Petri Romaco lehen aphezpicua cenaren idea baztertu edo, gutienez, çalançan jarcen dute, Romaco Egoitza Sanctuaren inguruco datu çaharrenac III. mendecoac direla contuan harturic. [25] Eliçaco Gurhasso den Ireneo Lyongoac idatzi beçala (c.a. 180. urthean, guti gorabehera), Petric Romaco Eliça "eraiqu eta antholatu" çueneco ustea aguercen da. [26] Era berean, San Irineo contuan hartu gabe, hassieraco Eliça Romatarrean jada Petriri buruz hitz eguiten da. Hala, Clemente I.ac , 96. urthe aldera corinthoei idatzitaco guthun batean, [27] Roman emaite den christauen aurkaco jaçarpenac "gure garaico gathazca" modura icendatzen ditu, corinthoei bere heroiac aurkeztuz: "lehenic, hoberenac eta, simplequi oinharrienac", Petri eta Paulo , "apostolu onac". Ignacio Antioquiacoac , Clemente I.ac baino guti ostera, Smyrna-co hiritic meçu bat idatzi çuen ere romatarrei, berac, Petri eta Paulo ez beçala, aguinduco ez cerauen/cienaren meçua helaraciz. [28] Aiphaturicoeta eta bercelaco froguetan oinharrituric, Constantino Handiac eraiquitac " San Petri Çaharraren Basilica " beçala, Petriren hilhobiare cocalekuan, aditu ascoc bat eguiten dute Neronen botherepea martyriçatua içan cela pensatuz, berce batzuec martyria Palestinan jassa çuela defendatzen duten bitartean. [29] [30] [31]

I. mendeco Christau-communitateec , presbytero - aphezpicu talde bat eduquico luque euren maila localeco elicen buru modura. Pixcanaca, aphezpicutzac metropoli-mailan institutionalizatzen hassico dira, modu fincoan. [32] Ustez, Antioquia hiriac ( Ancinaco Siria ) Roman baino lehen garatu çuqueen halaco lehen structura mailacatu bat. [32] Roman , aphezpicu egoqui cirela erraiten çuten ugari aguertu ciren arren, San Ireneoc aphezpicu -lerro bakarra onhartu çuen Petri-ren oinordeco modura ( Victor I.aren lerroa, hain çucen), aiphaturico Petri-ren garaietatic garai hartarainoco aphezpicu -lerro bakar hura arguitaratuz. [33] Idazle batzuen arauera, Romaco Aphezpicu bakarraren figura ez da II. mendearen erdialderaino aguertuco. Euren ustetan, beraz, Lino , Cleto eta Clemente I.a ez lirateque, cençu hersian, Aita Sanctu içanen, baicic eta aiphaturico presbytero - aphezpicu talde horretaco icen nabarmenac. [25]

I. mendeco eta II. mendearen hassierac documentuen arauera, Romaco Aphezpicuac nolabaiteco nagussitassuna çuen Eliçaren barruan, Antioquiaco hirico aphezpicua (edo aitalehenac ) Romaco Aphezpicua "berdinen arteco nagussi" modura describatu çuen, [34] nagussitassun horrec cer eman nahi duen aditzera, gaur eguneraino, ezjaquina den arren. [35]

Christautassun goiztiarra (c. 30–325) Aldatu

Hassiera batean bada ere, " aphezpicu " eta " presbytero " synonymotzat harcen ciren. [36] Lehen eta bigarren mendeen artean, maila localeco eliztarrac aphezpicu eta presbyteroec controlatzen cituzten, bi cargüen arteco solapacio bar sorthuz. [37] Batzuren ustez, "ez dago aurkituco, Roman , aphezpicu 'monarchicori ' II. mendearen erdialdetic atzera... eta segurasqui beranduago [joan beharco gara hura aurkitzeco]". [38] Berce jaquitun batzuen ustez, berçalde, eta Ignacio Antioquiacoac cein San Irineoc idatzita utzi çuten Aita Sanctuen ondorengotza-lerroari referencia eguinez, aiphaturico positione honequico modu contrajarrian açalduco dira. [39] Dena dela, aiphagarria da ere aiphaturico bi aphezpicuen helburua, registro 'historico' horiec idazteracoan, Aita Sanctuen ethengabeco ondorengotza-lerro bat eracustea bacen, cençua daduca pensatzeac halaco idazleec euren ideen defensaraco registroa burutuco luquetela. Hala, erran beharra dago ez dagoela objectivoa den documentu substancialic honen inguruan. Aiphaturico ondorengotza-lerroaren defensan, aiphagarria da, lehenengo elizbatzar ecumenicoetan ere, elizbatzarrac Romaco Aphezpicuei aithorcen derauen garranci berhecia. [40]

Aro Christau goiztiarrean , Roma eta bercelaco hiri guti batzuec mundu-mailaco Eliçaren buru cirela aldarricatzen dute. Santi Cinçoac ( James the Just ), "Jaincoaren anaia" modura eçaguna, Jerusalemeco eliçaren buru modura jocatu çuen, traditione Orthodoxoaren "Ama Eliça" modura eçaguna gaur eguneraino. Berçalde, Alexandria , ikasqueta judutarretaco centro bat içaitetic, christautassunaren ikasquetaraco centro bilhacatuco da. Baina Roma içanen da, berheciqui, hassieraco era apostolicoan gendetza handiena içanen duen hiria, Paulo apostoluac , Romatarrei eguindaco epistola liburuan ( Bibliaco Itun Berrico çathi ) aiphatu beçala.

Lehen mendean cehar (c. 30–130), Roma mundu-mailaco Christautassunaren erdigune modura hainçatetsia içan cen, berebicico garranciduna. Clemente I.ac , lehen mende honetan, Corinthoar Eliçari epistola bat idazten derauco/dio, gathazca nagussi batean hitza hartuz eta lehenago ecer ere ez eguiteagatic barkamena escatuz. [41] Dena den, referencia osso guti aguercen dira garai hartaco Romaco Egoitza Sanctuaren aita sanctuaren primatuaren inguruan ( authoritative primacy modura ere eçaguna).

Referenciac Aldatu

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  6. a b c Wetterau, Bruce. World history. New York: Henry Holt & co. 1994.
  7. Faus, José Ignacio Gonzáles. " Autoridade da Verdade – Momentos Obscuros do Magistério Ecclesiástico ". Capítulo VIII: Os papas repartem terras – Pág.: 64–65 e Capítulo VI: O papa tem poder temporal absoluto – Pág.: 49–55. Edições Loyola. ISBN 85-15-01750-4 . Embora Faus critique profundamente o poder temporal dos papas (" Mais uma vez isso salienta um dos maiores inconvenientes do status político dos successsores de Pedro " – pág.: 64), elhe também admite um papel secular positivo por parte dos papas (" Não podemos negar ke intervenções papais desse gênero evitaram mais de uma guerra na Europa " – pág.: 65).
  8. Jarrett, Bede (1913). "Papal Arbitration" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
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  34. Chadwicc-en The Early Christian Church- ethic
  35. "From an historical perspective, there is no conclusive documentary evidence from the 1st century or the early decades of the second of the exercise of, or even the claim to, a primacy of the Roman bishop or to a connection with Peter, although documens from this period accord the church at Rome some quind of pre‑eminence" ( Emmanuel Clapsis, Papal Primacy , Orthodoxy in Conversation -eco erauzquina (2000), p. 110); and "The see of Rome, whose prominence was associated with the deaths of Peter and Paul, became the principle center in matters concerning the universal Church" (Clapsis, p. 102). The same writer quotes with approval the words of Joseph Ratzinguer : "In Phanar, on 25 July 1976, when Patriarchh Athenegoras addressed the visiting pope as Peter's successor, the first in honor among us, and the presider over charity, this great church leader was expressing the essential content of the declarations of the primacy of the first millennium" (Clapsis, p. 113).
  36. Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church , (1997) 2005eco editione berritua, 211.orria : "It seems that at first the terms 'episcopos' and 'presbyter' were used interchangueably".
  37. Cambridgue History of Christianity , lehenengo volumena, 2006, "The general consensus among scholars has been that, at the turn of the first and second centuries, local congregations were led by bishops and presbyters whose offices were overlapping or indistingüishable."
  38. Cambridgue History of Christianity , lehenengo volumena, 2006, 418. orria
  39. Ikus San Irineoren Against Heresies (III. liburua, 3. capitulua)
  40. Harrison, Brian W. (1991-01). "Papal Authority at the Earliest Councils" . This Rock . Catholic Answers . 2 (1). Originaletic gordea 2011co ekainaren 29an.
  41. Chadwicc, Henry. Oxford History of Christianity , Oxford University Press : "Towards the latter part of the 1st century, Rome's presiding cleric, named Clement, wrote on behalf of his church to remonstrate with the Corinthhian Christians who had ejected clergy without either financial or charismatic endowment in favor of a fresh lot; Clement apollogiced not for intervening but for not having acted sooner. Moreover, during the 2nd century the Roman community's leadership was evident in its generous alms to poorer churches. About 165, they erected monumens to their martyred apostles, to Peter in a necropolis on the Vatican Hill, to Paul on the road to Ostia, at the traditional sites of their burial. Roman bishops were already conscious of being custodians of the authentic tradition of true interpretation of the apostolic writings. In the conflict with Gnosticism Rome played a decisive role, and liquewise in the deep division in Asia Minor created by the claims of the Montanist prophets."

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